Diving into the buffer pool
The need for buffer pools. If you have a memory constrained system and multiple processes or even interrupt routines are running you might get a situation where memory is monopolized by one particular sub-system. For example, if you get a lot of packets arriving they may quickly use up memory if the network stack is not able to process them quickly enough. They would be buffered up, using available memory. Then if the disk sub-system wanted memory it would not be able to receive any, as memory has become exhausted by the incoming packets. As the packets cannot be processed due to a lack of available memory for disk sub-system, you have a deadlock. In addition incoming packets will be lost as there are no buffers available for them.
Buffer pools can be allocated for use by a particular sub-system. The buffers in the buffer pool are of fixed size and there is a limit on the number of buffers in a buffer pool. When you create a buffer pool you can specify the number of buffers (up to a hard-coded maximum), and a buffer size (up to a hard-coded maximum). The size and number of buffers will be sub-system-specific.
Once a buffer pool has been created, the size of buffers in it, and the number of buffers in it, cannot be changed in order to prevent the sub-system monopolizing memory.
So what happens if a sub-system exhausts the buffers in its pool? At this point the sub-system would have to block (if network packets are still incoming they will be lost unfortunately as they cannot be buffered). However, the other sub-systems, such as the protocol stack, would be able to process the data already in the sub-system's buffer pool, freeing up buffers over time. The sub-system would at some point then be able to continue to receive packets.
The main point is a deadlock has not been reached, as the memory hungry sub-system that exhausted its buffer pool would be blocked to prevent deadlocking the other sub-systems due to memory starvation.
Earlier in these notes I talked mainly about how buffer pools can prevent memory exhaustion by blocking a process when its buffer pool is exhausted. However, there is a really big advantage of buffer pools I did not mention before - fragmentation prevention.
The great thing about buffer pools in that, for a specific buffer pool, all buffers are of the same size. This means fragmentation is impossible. OK well, that's not exactly true. Let's be more specific. Fragmentation can occur in that as you free buffers you will get gaps in memory. But the advantage of buffer pools is because all buffers are of the same size you will never get a case where memory allocation fails due to a free block not being big enough.
Buffer pools are an excellent solution in embedded systems, or in any scenario where you are going to create a lot of allocations of the same size.