Dealing with dates

Dates are tricky little things in ways that aren't apparent when you first look at them. As I burrowed into the requirements around generating an Atom feed for this site I wandered into the thorny wastelands of ISO-8601 dates. For example, look at this simple Atom feed:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<feed xmlns="">
  <title>Coffee and Code Feed</title>
  <link href=""/>
    <name>Tony Bedford</name>
  <!-- Entries go here -->
    <title>Creating an Atom feed</title>
    <link href=""/>
    <summary>This is a summary of the article.</summary>

You'll notice if you look at an Atom feed dates in a format similar to 2017-11-10T11:07:29+0000. This is an ISO-8601 format date. It has various forms. This one is in a format where the time difference to UTC is shown, in this case the difference is zero.

The other common ISO-8601 format you might come across is 2011-08-27T23:22:37Z. This format is converted to UTC, in other words the local date-time has been adjusted to be a UTC date-time.

This can be clarified by example, while showing you how you can generate ISO-8601 dates on the command line (in Mac OS X, Linux, or Cygwin).

To obtain a UTC referenced date on the command line you can issue the following command:

date -u +"%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ"

This will give you an ISO-8601 format date corrected to UTC - the -u option tells date you want the date-time automagically converted from your local time to UTC. Example output from the command would be:


If you've not come across UTC before you can think of it as approximately GMT. GMT is based on astronomical time, but UTC is based on fancy-pants atomic time as dictated by super accurate atomic clocks. This atomic time is called International Atomic Time (TAI).

One of the problems with astronomical time is it's based on, well, astronomical bodies, and their spinning and motion tends to speed up and slow down depending on tides, the moon, the sun, and which way the wind is blowing.

So astronomical time and TAI get out of synch, so there's this "fiddle factor" called the leap second they have to apply now and then and that's when Linux crashes and all hell breaks loose. This TAI with the fiddle factor is called Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).

The reasons the acronyms don't quite match is the acronyms were based on the original French names for these standards.

Anyway, I digress...

I realized the best approach with regards dates for my website would be to standardize on a date reference and two date formats.

First, the date reference point for all dates associated with this site is UTC. It does not matter whether or not I am on summer time, or what time zone you are in, dates are UTC - period. I will say that again - dates on this site are always UTC.

Generally when you are looking at ISO-8601 dates they always have the format YYYY-MM-DD. This avoids the confusing situation where some countries put the month before the day and so on.

I also use two date-time string formats:

  1. I have a human readable (at least more human readable) format which I use in the article source at the bottom of each article. This is of the format 2017-10-01 12:21:36 UTC. Note the UTC on the end which is my way of clarifying this is a UTC date-time. It's quick and clean and because it's more or less ISO-8601 (but not quite) it should be unambiguous. This is basically used for published and updated date-times.

  2. The second string format I use is one you have already seen - it is an ISO-8601 format date corrected to UTC. This is only used within the generated Atom feed for the site, so you generally won't see it. This format is a little 'busy' to be used as a human readable format, but feed readers love it!

I have some Python code that will convert from format 1 to format 2. So the idea is the date-time can be read from a blog post / article, and converted to the ISO-8601 format. Here's the code snippet:

import re

def convert_date (s):

    m = (r'(\d\d\d\d-\d\d-\d\d)', s)
    date =

    m = (r'(\d\d:\d\d:\d\d)', s)
    time =

    iso_date = date + "T" + time + "Z"

    return iso_date

The code is fairly simple - I could have used a single regex, with multiple capture groups, which would have been faster and use less code, but it seemed easier to read split over two regexes.

OK so I second guessed myself and did a slightly more succinct version for you, and then added some error checking too, since we really need to be explicit about specifying UTC date-times:

def convert_date (s):

    m = (r'(\d\d\d\d-\d\d-\d\d) (\d\d:\d\d:\d\d) (\w\w\w)', s)

    if != "UTC":
        print("ERROR: Only UTC format should be specified!")

    return + "T" + + "Z"

As an aside, if you type the command date in the terminal normally you will get a date-time in this format Fri 10 Nov 2017 14:03:59 GMT. In summer this would probably show a BST on the end I would guess - that's one reason why I avoid this format, you'd have to start dealing with setting clocks backwards and forwards and all that malarkey. By sticking with UTC I never have to worry about that.

You can do date -u to get a date-time adjusted to UTC and formatted like this: Tue 14 Nov 2017 13:21:21 UTC. I have considered this date format too as it is very human readable. I have not quite decided whether to use this format or not, but the code to convert it to ISO-8601 is as follows:

def convert_date2 (s):

    months = {'Jan': 1, 'Feb': 2, 'Mar': 3, 'Apr': 4, 'May': 5, 'Jun': 6, 'Jul': 7, 'Aug': 8, 'Sep': 9, 'Oct': 10, 'Nov': 11, 'Dec': 12}
    m = (r'(\w\w\w) (\d\d) (\w\w\w) (\d\d\d\d) (\d\d:\d\d:\d\d) (\w\w\w)', s)

    if != "UTC":
        print("Only UTC format should be specified!")
    YYYY =
    MM = str(months[])
    DD =
    time =
    return YYYY + '-' + MM + '-' + DD + 'T' + time + 'Z'

Again, this could probably be made a little more succinct but it's good enough for this application.

I hope you've found this article useful. Feel free to contact me or borrow any of my code if you think it might be useful.